SSC & Railways Computer Subject PDF 2018

SSC & Railways Computer Subject PDF 2018

Dear readers,
In this Computer PDF, we will cover each and every important topic which can be asked in the upcoming SSC
& Railways Exam. This Computer Awareness PDF is relevant for all SSC and Railways exams like SSC CGL,
SSC CPO, SSC GD Constable, RRB ALP/ Technician, RRB Group D, RPF Constable & SI exam etc.


Basics & Fundamentals of Computer


Computer: A computer is a truly amazing machine that performs a specified sequence of operations as per

the set of instructions (known as programs) given on a set of data (input) to generate desired information
(output ).

Father of Computer: Charles Babbage

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The following features characterize this electronic machine:
✓ Speed
✓ Accuracy
✓ Storage and Retrieval
✓ Repeated Processing Capabilities
✓ Reliability
✓ Flexibility

✓ Low cost

CPU (Central Processing Unit): CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. It performs all types of

data processing operations, stores data, intermediate results and instructions (program). It controls the
operation of all parts of computer.


CPU itself has following three components:
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit): When the control unit encounters an instruction that involves mathematical
calculation or decision/logic, it passes the control to the second component, i.e., the arithmetic logic unit
(ALU). The ALU includes a group of registers – memory locations built directly into the CPU – that are used
to hold data that are being processed by the current instruction.
Registers: The register is the smallest high-speed storage area in the CPU. All data must be represented
in a register before it can be processed.
Control Unit: This unit controls the operations of all parts of computer but does not carry out any actual
data processing operations

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Primary memory consists of mainly two types of memories:
Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM is the
internal memory of the CPU for storing data,
program and program result. It is read/write
memory which stores data until the machine is
working. As soon as the machine is switched off,
data is erased.
RAM is volatile, i.e. data stored in it is lost
when we switch off the computer or if there is a
power failure. Hence a backup uninterruptible
power system (UPS) is often used with
computers. RAM is small, both in terms of its
physical size and in the amount of data it can
hold.
There are mainly three types of RAM available:
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM):
A type of physical memory used in most personal
computers. The term dynamic indicates that the
memory must be constantly refreshed2
(reenergized) or it loses its contents. This type
of memory is more economical.

Static Random Access Memory (SRAM): A

type of memory that is faster and less volatile
than DRAM, but requires more power and is
more expensive. The term static is derived from
the fact that it does not need to be refreshed like
DRAM.
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access
Memory (SDRAM): A type of DRAM that can
run at much higher clock speeds.
Read Only Memory (ROM):The memory from
which we can only read but can not write on it .
This type of memory is non-volatile. The
information is stored permanently in such
memories during manufacture. A ROM, stores
such instructions that are required to start a
computer. This operation is referred to as
bootstrap.

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